2017 Annual Report trafficking and smuggling of human beings: Online_
As independent National Rapporteur on trafficking in human beings for Belgium, for over 20 years Myria has carried out a yearly independent policy evaluation. In its latest report on Human Trafficking and Smuggling Myria focuses on the role of the internet and social media in trafficking and smuggling, but also on combating trafficking and smuggling human beings.
Part 1: Myria in action
Part 2: Focus: The role of social media and the internet in human trafficking and smuggling
External contribution: Presentation DJSOC/I2 in the fight against human trafficking: supporting role in investigations on the internet and social media
Alain Luypaert, Police Commissioner and Head of Department
External contribution: Refugees: when human smuggling becomes human trafficking
Melita H. Sunjic, Head of the Communicating with Communities Team, UNHCR
Part 3: Evolution of the phenomenon and the fight against human trafficking and smuggling
The development of the Internet and social media has opened up a plethora of opportunities. As is the case with all technological advances, it has been used for both good and bad. Traffickers have taken to using the Internet and social media for recruiting their victims, marketing their ‘wares’ and managing their criminal activities. For instance lover boys contact their victims via Facebook, Snapchat or Skype. Internet advertisements from fake modeling agencies and false Facebook profiles tout dubious job offers. In one particular case, a pimp recruited prostitutes via a false Facebook profile in which he pretended to be a woman, offering his victims hostess jobs in show business. During the initial interview and photo shoot, he manipulated the girls into having sex. They were consequently proposed escort work under a false self-employed status. The promised large financial rewards did not materialize.
In 2016, Europol has traced 17.000 people smugglers who were using Facebook to organize their smuggling activities bringing people to the EU. Facebook advertisements pitch everything from smuggling trajectories, false documents, to marriages of convenience. The ads list detailed pricing, success rates, photos and promotional videos. Smugglers also offer smuggling trips to Western Europe on Instagram via malicious travel agencies. Logistical and financial details are discussed over Viber, Skype and WhatsApp.
Law enforcement has also increasingly turned to using the Internet and social media to identify victims and suspects. Electronic means of communication are used to interrogate victims and suspects. Financial transactions can be traced online. Images and messages on social media and smartphones are subject to detailed analysis. Smuggling victims were able to help investigators identify smugglers via their Facebook profiles.
Police and prosecutors make intensive use of the Internet and social media to combat human trafficking for sexual exploitation and human smuggling. This is not yet the case for cases of economic exploitation. Magistrates, police, and social inspectors should be made aware of the issue and provided with sufficient practice-oriented training. Analysis of computers or smartphones, adult dating websites and Facebook profiles are invaluable sources, provided sufficient investments are made in IT, and capacity building of law enforcement.
Myria, the Federal Migration Center, is an independent public institution with three mandates: promoting the fight against trafficking in human beings and smuggling of human beings, informing the authorities about the nature and extent of migratory flows and protecting the fundamental rights of foreign nationals. Myria is also the Belgian independent National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings.
Myria in action
In 2016, Myria initiated civil proceedings in seven new cases, five of which involved human trafficking, and two of which involved human smuggling. Myria fulfilled its role as observer and participant within the Interdepartmental Coordination Unit for the fight against human smuggling and human trafficking, and for the bureau. Myria also ensures the secretarial function for both of these bodies. Myria also actively participated in the meetings of the informal network of national rapporteurs and equivalent mechanisms in the area of human trafficking.
2020 Annual report trafficking and smuggling of human beings
In its annual report entitled Behind closed doors Myria hightlights the need to raise awareness on the exploitation of domestic workers, the special attention that needs to be paid to diplomatic domestic staff and the COVID-19 aspect.
2019 Annual report trafficking and smuggling of human beings
Justice for human trafficking victims has a long way to go. With its annual report, Myria wants to contribute to their empowerment and has put together concrete recommendations for the attention of public authorities.
2018 Annual report trafficking and smuggling of human beings
Myria, the National independent rapporteur on human trafficking assesses in its latest report the detection, reception and support of child victims of human trafficking. According to the findings of Myria Nigerian minors are a particularly vulnerable group.